Maybe you’ve known it from the minute you walked in the door. Maybe it’s only as you’re wrapping up your first lesson. There’s no denying it, though: this class is hard to handle. Whether they’re spirited fourth graders who won’t sit down or (seemingly) apathetic tenth graders who won’t look up, any classroom can be set on the right course.
Here are 5 tips to get things on track when you’re facing a challenging classroom.
1. Establish clear boundaries.
They won’t often admit it, but most students want to know exactly what the expectations are and the consequences for ignoring expectations–especially when a new person is in charge. Set an optimistic and assured tone from the start by going over expectations as part of your introduction and the day’s plan.
In addition to establishing that you will uphold the school and classroom policies, don’t be afraid to add specifics of your own: “It’s important to me that you don’t speak over your classmates.” (Rather than the more general “Show courtesy to your classmates,” for example.)
The consequences for uncooperative students will vary depending on the school’s policies, but know the policies going in, establish with the class that you know them, and, most importantly, be prepared to follow through.
Don’t make it harder on yourself by giving idle warnings! If a classroom observes that you do not follow through with what you say, you lose credibility.
2. Use your team.
As a substitute teacher, you are one on a team of many. The administrators and staff want to see you succeed. Don’t be afraid to lean on the people who are there to support you. While it may be tempting to “prove yourself” by handling a challenging situation on your own, remember that no one outside of your classroom realizes you are in a challenging situation unless you let them know. Feeling supported will give you the confidence you need to face any challenges thrown your way:
- At check-in, be sure you know who to contact if you need assistance and how to contact them.
- Introduce yourself to teachers whose classrooms are next to yours.
- Give yourself time to ensure that the classroom teacher has left behind adequate plans, behavioral expectations, and any other instructions you need before starting class. If this isn’t the case, reach out immediately for help.
3. Focus on the positive.
The Pareto Principle says that roughly 20% of the actions produce 80% of results. If you apply the 80/20 rule to a classroom, you will find that, typically, only a few students can take up the majority of your time–if you let them.
Especially when you’re getting to know a new class, a handful of challenging students can feel like “everyone,” but chances are good that you’re overlooking students who are doing exactly what they should be doing. Make a conscious effort to recognize and engage with these students. Not only will they receive the attention they deserve, but you will also set an example for the rest of the class as to what gets your attention in the first place.
4. Get them writing.
It’s a slam dunk: you’ll hone their writing skills (among other benefits) while getting them focused and quiet. Bloom’s Taxonomy, a theory of learning, underscores how writing and reflection help students apply knowledge and analyze it. To make sure students stay on task, announce that you’ll be asking them to share their writing with the class or that you’ll be collecting their work. Pick a topic related to the material or go broad with reflective questions, like:
- What about the material we are learning is new to me? What did I already know?
- What are the connections between what we’re learning and other parts of my life?
- What questions do I have about our topic today?
Even if students have come to class totally unprepared, they’ll be able to respond to at least one of these. You can be prepared, though: know that writing in class often takes longer than you’d expect. They’ll be engaged and quiet for the duration of the writing time.
5. Go Zen.
If your students seem restless or uncooperative, consider focusing them using a mindfulness exercise. Research shows mindfulness can reduce bullying, enhance focus, and improve social skills. A few ideas for working it into your lesson:
- Listen to a mindfulness meditation. Insight Timer is an app that offers over 10,000 free meditations, including ones geared specifically for kids. Let students choose the topic by voting to get them excited.
- Do yoga. Students will be glad to get out of their desks. Simple poses can be done by even the youngest children.
- Go on a “safari.” A mindfulness walk is an opportunity to get kids present. Go on a brief walk around the classroom and ask them to quietly notice everything they can. The wildflowers out the windows? The flickering overhead light? All can be observed as a way to draw students into the learning environment.
*Pro tip: Are they too restless for mindfulness? Put on some music and have them dance out their extra energy with a 5-minute dance party!
And finally . . . stay calm.
It’s crucial that you remain collected and measured, even when the situation seems to be spinning out of control. Students are perceptive and easily pick up on a substitute’s confusion, frustration, or anger, which may further incite challenging behavior. Losing your patience will not result in anything but gossip for the lunch line.
Looking for more activities for the classroom? Check out our complete guide to classroom resources, curated just for substitute teachers.